Korea Ginseng Corporation is pushing for innovation with the Korea Ginseng Research Institute at the helm. The Korea Ginseng Research Institute has 130 top researchers connected to medicine and science, both domestic and global. We study a variety of subjects, and we are world leaders in red ginseng and natural products research in areas ranging from ginseng cultivation technology to new ingredient development, efficacy/safety/analysis research, product development, and more.
Stress & Brain Health (Nootropics)
Effects of Ginseng Total Saponin on Caffeine-induced Stimulation of Locomotor Activity and the Related Brain Catecholamine Contents in Mice
Hack Seang Kim (Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University)
Seo (Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University)
The effect of ginseng total saponins (GTS) on caffeine-induced increased locomotor activity was investigated. Catecholamines, noradrenaline and dopamine, possible mediators for the locomotor activity, were measured in the mouse whole brain, cortex and the remainder. The locomotor activity was measured in circular activity cages equipped with six light sources and photocells. Catecholamine contents in the mouse brain were determined by HPLC-fluorescence detection. GTS reduced the increased locomotor activity dose-dependently.
Caffeine increased the norepinephrine and dopamine in the mouse’s whole brain and cortex dose-dependently. Ginseng Total Saponin reduced the norepinephrine in the remainder, and reduced the dopamine in the cortex.
An Open-Label Trial of Korean Red Ginseng As An Adjuvant Treatment for Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease
Ginseng is one of the most popular herbs worldwide. Ginseng has various medical applications, and it seems to have significant effects as a cognition-enhancing drug. In this study, we examined the efficacy of Korean red ginseng (KRG) as an adjuvant therapy to conventional anti-dementia medications in patients with Alzheimer's disease.
The patients in the high-dose KRG group showed significant improvement on the ADAS and CDR after 12 weeks of KRG therapy when compared with those in the control group (P = 0.032 and 0.006 respectively). The KRG treatment groups showed improvement from baseline MMSE when compared with the control group (1.42 vs. -0.48), but this improvement was not statistically significant.
This study suggests Korean Red Ginseng Extract showed good efficacy for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.Read The Full Study Here or Here
Effects of 8 Weeks Administration of Korean Panax Ginseng Extract On the Mood and Cognitive Performance of Health Individuals
Data from the 16 participants that completed the study showed that there were no significant, acute treatment related differences on Day 1 of treatment, or in gluco-regulatory parameters throughout the study. However, time related performance improvements were evident following chronic administration of ginseng on the '3-Back' and 'Corsi-block' computerized working memory tasks. Ginseng was also associated with an improved score on the 'social relations' subscale of the WHOQOL-100, and a significant shift on the 'calm' factor of the Bond-Lader mood scales (from calm/relaxed towards excited/tense).
The results of the study suggest that Korean ginseng extract can modulate working memory performance and subjective ratings of 'quality of life' and mood.
Korean Red Ginseng Saponins with Low Ratios of Protopanaxadiol and Protopanaxatriol Saponin Improve Scopolamine-induced Learning Disability and Spatial Working Memory in Mice
Sung-Ha Jin a, Jin-Kyu Park a, Ki-Yeul Nam a, Sue-Nie Park b,*, Noh-Pal Jung c
a Department of Biochemical Pharmacology, Korea Ginseng & Tobacco Research Institute, PO Box7, Yusong-Gu, Taejon 305-345, South Korea
b Molecular & Cell Biology Research Division, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience & Biotechnology, KIST, PO Box 115, Yusong-Gu, Taejon 305-600, South Korea
c Department of Biology, College of Science, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749, South Korea
The ratio of PD and PT was 1.24 and 1.46, respectively. Before training, the ginseng saponins were administered intraperitoneally at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg. The two saponins improved the scopolamine-induced learning impairment at different dosages in mice, 50 and 100 mg/kg, respectively.
Korean red ginseng saponin with a low PD/PT ratio had an improving effect on spatial working memory, but the saponin with a high PD/PT ratio did not. This finding suggests that the PD/PT ratio of the ginseng saponins may be an important factor in the pharmacological role of red ginseng as a medicinal herb.
Panax ginseng ginsenoside-Rg2 protects memory impairment via anti-apoptosis in a rat model with vascular dementia
Guizhi Zhang a , Ailing Liu a , Yingbin Zhou a , Xun San a , Taowei Jin b , Yi Jin a,∗
a Department of Physiology, Medical College of Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071, PR China
b Changchun University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Changchun 130117, PR China
Neurological responses and memory ability of the ginsenoside Rg 2 or nimodipine groups improved significantly compared with the VD group. The expression of BCL-2 and HSP70 were decreased, while BAX and P53 were increased in the VD model. The expression of BCL-2 and HSP70 proteins were increased, while BAX and P53 decreased after ginsenoside Rg 2 (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg) and nimodipine (50 g/kg) treatment compared with the VD group. The study suggests that ginsenoside Rg 2 improved neurological performance and memory ability of VD rats through mechanisms related to anti-apoptosis
The capacity for ginsenoside Rg 2 to modulate the expression of apoptotic related proteins suggests that ginsenoside Rg 2 may represent a potential treatment strategy for vascular dementia or other ischemic insults
Panax ginseng (G115) improves aspects of working memory performance and subjective ratings of calmness in healthy young adults
Jonathon L. Reay1 *, Andrew B. Scholey2 and David O. Kennedy1
1Brain Performance and Nutrition Research Centre, Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK
2NICM Centre for the Study of Natural Medicines and Neurocognition, Brain Science Institute, Swinburne University, Melbourne, VIC 3122, Australia
Results revealed dose-related treatment effects ( p < 0.05). Two hundred milligrams slowed a fall in mood at 2.5 and 4 h on day 1 and at 1 and 4 h on day 8, but slowed responding on a mental arithmetic task across day 1 and at 1 and 2.5 h on day 8. The 400 mg dose also improved calmness (restricted 2.5 and 4 h on day 1) and improved mental arithmetic across days 1 and 8
This study suggests Panax Ginseng improves aspects of working memory and improves calmness
Administration of red ginseng ameliorates memory decline in aged mice
Yeonju Lee, Seikwan Oh*
Department of Molecular Medicine and TIDRC, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea
Red ginseng treatment suppressed the production of age-processed inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-a, and interleukin-1b expressions. Moreover, it was observed that red ginseng had an antioxidative effect on aged mice. The suppressed glutathione level in aged mice was restored with red ginseng treatment. The antioxidative-related enzymes Nrf2 and HO-1 were increased with red ginseng treatment.
The results revealed that when red ginseng is administered over long periods, age-related decline of learning and memory is ameliorated through anti-inflammatory activity.
Protective effects of red ginseng extract against vaginal herpes simplex virus infection
Ara Cho #, Yoon Seok Roh #, Erdenebileg Uyangaa, Surim Park, Jong Won Kim, Kyu Hee Lim,
Jungkee Kwon, Seong Kug Eo, Chae Woong Lim, and Bumseok Kim *
Biosafety Research Institute and College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756, Korea
Balb/c mice were administered with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg oral doses of KRG extract for 10 d and then vaginally infected with HSV. We found that KRG extract rendered recipients more resistant against HSV vaginal infection and further systemic infection, including decreased clinical severity, increased survival rate, and accelerated viral clearance. Such results appeared to be mediated by increased vaginal IFN-γ secretion. Moreover, increased mRNA expression of IFN-γ, granzyme B, and Fas-ligand was identified in the iliac lymph node and vaginal tracts of KRG extract treated groups (200 and 400 mg/kg).
These results suggest that the activities of local natural killer cells were promoted by KRG extract consumption and that KRG may be an attractive immune stimulator for helping hosts overcome HSV infection.
Skin & Hair Health
Effects of topically applied Korean red ginseng and its genuine constituents on atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions
Hei Sung Kim a , Dong Hyun Kim b , Bong Kyu Kim c, Sungjoo Kim Yoon c , Min Ho Kim a, Jun Young Lee a, Hyung Ok Kim a, Young Min Park a,⁎
a Department of Dermatology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea
b College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea
c Department of Biomedical Sciences, Research Institute of Molecular Genetics, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, KoreaTesting:
The aim of this study was to examine the therapeutic effects of Korean red ginseng saponin fraction (KRGS) and its genuine constituents on atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions in an AD mouse model.Conclusion:
Topical administration of 0.1% KRGS, 0.1% Rh2 and 0.1% Rh2 + 0.1% Rg3 significantly reduced the clinical skin severity scores, ear thickness and mast cell infiltration in the TNCB-induced AD-like skin.Read The Full Study Here
Inhibitory mechanism of Korean Red Ginseng on GM-CSF expression in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes
Ira Chung 1, q, Jieun Lee 1,q, Young Sun Park 1, Yeji Lim 2, Do Hyeon Chang 3, Jongil Park 1,Jae Sung Hwang 1, *
1 Department of Genetic Engineering and the Graduate School of Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Korea
2 Eunkwang Girl’s High School, Seoul, Korea
3 Gyeonggi Science High School for the Gifted, Suwon, Korea
UV irradiation damages the skin by inducing the release of various pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as GM-CSF. Previous studies have shown that Korean Red Ginseng saponin (SKRG) decreases GM-CSF expression in UVB-irradiated SP-1 keratinocytes. In this study, we examined the mechanisms by which SKRG inhibits the release of GM-CSF in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes.
In this study, the inhibitory mechanism of SKRG and ginsenosides from Panax ginseng on GM-CSF expression in SP-1 keratinocytes was investigated. Treatment with SKRG decreased GM-CSF mRNA and protein expression induced by UVB irradiation in SP-1 keratinocytes. SKRG inhibited the UVB-induced phosphorylation of ERK and the phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is upstream signal of ER
Taken together, we found that treatment with SKRG decreased the phosphorylation of EGFR and ERK in UVB-irradiated SP-1 keratinocytes and subsequently inhibited the expression of GM-CSF. Furthermore, we identified ginsenoside-Rh3 as the active saponin in Korean Red Ginseng.
Korean Red Ginseng attenuates ultraviolet-mediated inflammasome activation in keratinocytes
Huijeong Ahn a, Byung-Cheol Han a, b, Eui-Ju Hong c , Beum-Soo An d , Eunsong Lee a, Seung-Ho Lee b, Geun-Shik Lee a,
*a College of Veterinary Medicine and Institute of Veterinary Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Republic of Korea
b Korea Ginseng Research Institute, Korea Ginseng Corporation, Daejeon, Republic of Korea
c College of Veterinary Medicine and Institute of Veterinary Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Republic of Korea
d Department of Biomaterial Science, College of Natural Resources and Life Science, Pusan National University, Gyeongsangnam-do, Republic of Korea
Keratinocytes are the outermost cells of the skin and act as an innate immune cell. Keratinocytes produce inflammatory cytokines when exposed to UV irradiation. In this study, we showed the role of RGE in UV-mediated inflammasome activation in keratinocytes. RGE modulates inflammasome activation in immune cells, such as macrophages. RGE suppressed UV-mediated inflammatory cytokine secretion and autophagy in keratinocytes.
Human skin keratinocytes cells, epidermal keratinocytes, human monocyte-like cells, and mouse macrophages were treated with RGE or its saponin or non-saponin fraction before and after UV irradiation. The secretion levels of IL-1b, an indicator of inflammasome activation, were analyzed.
RGE and its saponins inhibit IL-1b secretion in response to UV exposure in both keratinocytes and macrophages. In particular, RGE treatment interrupted only the priming step in keratinocytes, although it did attenuate both the priming and activation steps in macrophages.
Photoprotective Effect of Red Ginseng against Ultraviolet Radiation-induced Chronic Skin Damage
Hae June Lee 1, Joong Sun Kim2 , Myoung Sub Song2 , Heung Sik Seo2 , Changjong Moon2, Jong Choon Kim2 , Sung Kee Jo 3 , Jong Sik Jang4 and Sung Ho Kim 2*
1 Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul 139-240, South Korea
2 College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757, South Korea
3 Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Jeongeup Campus of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185, South Korea
4 Department of Animal Science, Kyungpook National University, Sangju 742-711, South Korea
Red ginseng has been found to protect the skin from photodamage by reducing the occurrence of UV radiation-induced skin tumors in mice. The mice treated with red ginseng showed a decreased wrinkling score, minimal epidermal hyperplasia, and slightly increased dermal cellularity, compared to the untreated mice. The treated mice also showed a significantly decreased tumor onset compared to the untreated mice.
It is noted that skin that is chronically exposed to UV is subject to photoaging and photocarcinogenesis and the regular use of Red Ginseng would prevent these photodamaging effects of UV.
Red Ginseng Extract Promotes the Hair Growth in Cultured Human Hair Follicles
Gyeong-Hun Park,1 Ki-young Park,2 Hong-il Cho,2 Sang-Min Lee,3 Ji Su Han,3 Chong Hyun Won,3,* Sung Eun Chang,3 Mi Woo Lee,3 Jee Ho Choi,3 Kee Chan Moon,3 Hyoseung Shin,4 Yong Jung Kang,5 and Dong Hun Lee5, *
1 Department of Dermatology, Dongtan Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Hwaseong, Korea.
2 Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Seoul, Korea.
3 Department of Dermatology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
4 Department of Dermatology, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, Korea.
5 Department of Dermatology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Institute of Human-Environment Interface Biology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
Ginseng has been shown to promote hair growth, but its effects on human hair follicles and mechanisms of action are not well-understood. This study aimed to investigate ginseng's effects on cultured human hair follicles using Ki-67 immunostaining, as well as its effects on isolated human dermal papilla cells using cytotoxicity assays, immunoblot analysis of signaling proteins, and determination of associated growth factors. We also examined its ability to protect hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation against DHT-induced suppression and its effects on androgen receptor expression.
Red ginseng may promote hair growth in humans. It enhances hDPC proliferation, activates ERK and AKT signaling pathways, and inhibits the DHT-induced transcription of the androgen receptor.
Red ginseng oil promotes hair growth and protects skin against UVC radiation
Van-Long Truong a, c , Young-Sam Keum b, Woo-Sik Jeong a, c, *
a Department of Food and Life Sciences, College of BNIT, Inje University, Gimhae, 50834, South Korea
b College of Pharmacy and Integrated Research Institute for Drug Development, Dongguk University, Goyang, 10326, South Korea
c Food and Bio-industry Research Institute, School of Food Science & Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 41566, South Korea
Red ginseng oil can enhance skin functions, including hair growth and skin protection. In the hair growth experiment, shaved dorsal skins of C57BL/6 mice were topically applied with vehicle, RGO, RGO's major compounds, or minoxidil for 21 days. The skin tissues were examined for the hair growth promoting capacity.
Topical application of RGO promotes hair regeneration by inducing early telogen-to-anagen transition, increasing the density and bulb diameter of hair follicles, and upregulating hair growth related proteins. In SKH-1 hairless mice, RGO has a protective effect against UVC-induced skin damage by inhibiting inflammation and apoptosis and inducing cytoprotective systems.
The data suggests that Red Ginseng Oil may be a potent agent for improving skin health and thereby preventing and/or treating hair loss and protecting skin against UV radiation